The incident happened at around 4pm as fans travelled between Falmer – where Brighton's Amex Stadium is located – and Brighton.
No one has complained yet and police can only carry out an investigation should a member of the public make a compliant.
A statement from the British Transport Police, who are appealing for witnesses, said: "Officers received reports of anti-Semitic chanting on board a train between Falmer and Brighton at around 4pm yesterday afternoon (16/12).
"BTP attended and three men were spoken to by officers, but at this time no one has come forward to make a complaint.
"If you would like to, or you witnessed what happened, please contact BTP by texting 61016 or calling 0800 40 50 40 quoting reference 181 of 16/12/18."
Reports have stated that Chelsea supporters were involved in the chants, though BTP revealed that it is unknown who took part in the songs when contacted by SunSport.
The development comes after Chelsea fans were accused of singing anti-Semitic chants during their 2-2 draw against Vidi in the Europa League last week.
A statement released from the club condemned the allegations, as they said: "Anti-Semitism and any other kind of race-related or religious hatred is abhorrent to this club and the overwhelming majority of our fans.
“It has no place at Chelsea or in any of our communities.
"Any individuals that can’t summon the brainpower to comprehend this simple message, and are found to have shamed the club by used using anti-Semitic or racist words or actions, will face the strongest possible action.”
And Blues fans were also snapped holding up a flag showing a Nazi symbol prior to their match in Hungary last Thursday.
While four supporters have been suspended by Chelsea following accusations they racially abused Manchester City winger Raheem Sterling at Stamford Bridge.
Eden Hazard claimed those who took part in the chanting are "not proper fans" while Maurizio Sarri labelled the verbal attack as "disgusting".
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